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2 Drones Simultaneously Monitor Visual & Acoustic Behavior
438 16 1-23 13:50
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Cetacean
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Aloha, FYI

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Subject: Using two drones to simultaneously monitor visual and acoustic behaviour of gray whales in Baja California, Mexico

Frouin-Mouy H., Tenorio-Halle L., Thode A., Swartz S., Urban J. Using two drones to simultaneously monitor visual and acoustic behaviour of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) in Baja California, Mexico. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology.

The publication is available from the authors or at the link below:


ABSTRACT:

This study provides an initial demonstration of a combined two-UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) system for measuring the underwater source levels and behavioural context of vocal and non-vocal marine mammal signals, information that is highly ecologically-relevant in terms of understanding how a species interacts and copes with conspecifics and its acoustic environment. Although the calls of a few species are well known, major gaps exist in our knowledge about the relationship between vocal output and behavioural context, gender and age for most species. Accurate parameter estimates (e.g., typical source levels, frequency ranges, and temporal characteristics of animal sounds) relevant to their behaviour (activities such as foraging, migrating, mating, or parental care) are needed to establish use of critical habitats (when monitored by acoustics) or to assess potential effects of anthropogenic sound exposure (including reduction of the detection space of sounds used for communication). The emergence of UAVs provides new perspectives and data collection capabilities for marine mammal research. Although UAVs have been frequently exploited for visual observations of whales, most approaches for monitoring and recording sounds from individual whales are still performed using overside hydrophones from a boat or using acoustic tags attached to the animals. Laguna San Ignacio (LSI), Mexico, is one of the breeding and calving grounds of the Eastern North Pacific gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) population. LSI area's restricted geography, combined with the short dive times of the whales, provided an excellent field laboratory to test a dual drone approach. We used two UAVs: one to obtain acoustic measurements close to the whales and another one to obtain overhead visual observations. For the acoustic drone, a hydrophone (SoundTrap) was suspended via a 2-m line to a waterproof UAV quadcopter (Swellpro), which has the ability to take off and land from the surface of water. Simultaneously, the visual drone (DJI) monitored the whales in the area. Between 27 February and 17 March 2019, we simultaneously recorded underwater gray whale sounds and visual behavioural observations. During 92 min of underwater acoustic recordings, the acoustic drone recorded 11 call types. By time-synching underwater audio with the behavioural video, we obtained new insights into the source levels and functions of various quiet underwater sound that are difficult to impossible to obtain with standard methods. To our knowledge, no studies combining overhead visual observations and underwater acoustic recordings to describe acoustic behaviour and sound parameters of calls have been previously published.

Heloise Frouin-Mouy (Ph.D., R.P.Bio)
Bio-acoustician
______________________

JASCO Applied Sciences (Canada) Ltd
2305-4464 Markham Street
Victoria, BC  V8Z 7X8  Canada
Tel:  +1-250483-3300 x2012
Fax: +1-250-483-3301
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1-23 13:50
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AntDX316
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So if nothing gets published that means no one is doing it?  A ph.D paper has to be published first in order for work to take place?
1-29 22:16
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Cetacean
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AntDX316 Posted at 1-29 22:16
So if nothing gets published that means no one is doing it?  A ph.D paper has to be published first in order for work to take place?

Aloha Ant,

     Scientific papers are usually written about research already performed or observed.  Research proposals are to generate interest and funding.

     Hope this helps!

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1-30 00:27
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AntDX316
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Cetacean Posted at 1-30 00:27
Aloha Ant,

     Scientific papers are usually written about research already performed or observed.  Research proposals are to generate interest and funding.

So, usually, if a paper proposal or paper hasn't been made that means there is no study currently conducted?  How do you actually tell it doesn't exist?
1-30 00:58
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Cetacean
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AntDX316 Posted at 1-30 00:58
So, usually, if a paper proposal or paper hasn't been made that means there is no study currently conducted?  How do you actually tell it doesn't exist?


Aloha Ant,

     To answer your question simply, look at it as if there are two approaches.  One is if you are furthering an existing line of research.  Technology development often works this way as I am sure you have noticed.  By being familiar with what has been written about and designed already, you will know, at or near the expert level, about the subject matter you are thinking of writing about for development.  Then you think about your idea more and try to figure out if it is really new.

     This happened to me since we have been flying Phantom 2s.  I really liked the technology of the brushless motors.  At first I was unclear on the subject but just by using drones, I realized what all was involved in the technology.  

     At the same time, I was working on compact power and transmission systems for driving marine vehicles of various types.  (Kind of makes sense considering where I live?)  Anyway, it dawned on me that by using the brushless motor design we have in our drone motors, I could get rid of the solid drive shaft and just use an electric cable to power a waterproof motor with a built in shrouded propeller.  I modeled the concept and animated it in mid 2015.  

     Then I revisited the idea last year and did an Internet search to see how the technology was doing.  I found out that in late 2015, Rolls Royce had come out with the concept and was using a proof of concept on an ocean tug.  A video was on YouTube.  Boom, there you go, a valid innovation!

     Second is novel research or a discovery.  This is definitely more difficult all around.  If you reach the stage of a bonafide discovery, you are usually familiar with the jargon and specific language used in the field.  (Life is so much easier now that we have the Internet.)  Now, anyone can use their knowledge base to find what stage a new concept is at by searching different combinations of words involved in the principles.  Once you find that your new concept is unique in some way, you have to test the concept against any existing and new research that is in any way related.  But, most of all you have to read the literature on the subject matter.  Do not worry if you do not know the words – the definitions are on the Internet.  But push through.  Tenacity and constant thought every which way to figure out problems are the key.

     I had an experience way back in the day of research libraries (80s) when I was trying to develop a frictionless hydraulic motor for a waterbike that you could power with your arms and legs.  (Since I had taken three years of Latin, I had some language ability at least in a scientific sense.)  I found a book on compressors that looked like just what I needed and then I realized the book was in French!  Oh wow, bummer!  But there were a lot of photos of the technology and since I never say die when working on an idea and the book was in my hands, I started paging through it.  Great idea!  With just the photos, diagrams and drawings, I was getting a really good visual education about a subject I had very little visual imagery about.  (I am a very visual person.)  

     Finally, I came across a photo of a double-ended compressor.  That was what I had invented in my mind and there it was on the page, but it was in French!  So I tried to read the caption for the photo and sure enough, it had the key word "non-l' abrasion" in it.  Just what I needed (non-abrasion or non-friction).  Confirmation that I could design such a hydraulic motor using arm and leg powered pistons to hydraulically turn a driveshaft for an impeller system.  The double-ended shape could also help with the venturi needs to preserve the energy of the water flowing through the system.

     As you can see, the two approaches are somewhat related but the basic idea is to research as much as possible so you know what is out there.  Back in the day, patent searches were very expensive but you could learn about what was out there trying to solve the same problem you were.  Now it is much easier with the Internet.

     Hope this helps!

Aloha and Drone On!
1-30 02:59
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AntDX316
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Cetacean Posted at 1-30 02:59
Aloha Ant,

     To answer your question simply, look at it as if there are two approaches.  One is if you are furthering an existing line of research.  Technology development often works this way as I am sure you have noticed.  By being familiar with what has been written about and designed already, you will know, at or near the expert level, about the subject matter you are thinking of writing about for development.  Then you think about your idea more and try to figure out if it is really new.

Yeah, I've noticed how there are a million things that I wonder don't exist for some reason.  If I have a problem, I can develop solutions that people haven't made.  I'm not really a full-class engineer but some of the engineering people have made that has advanced so much to where we are today, a lot in life has been Heavily overlooked.  For me, I think having tech is the best vulnerability patcher we humans have available.  To not have it in at least every area of life is crazy.  Tech has also advanced where it can make decisions on its own.  Better than any human can so what has already existed, AI control can make it better.

It's understandable why tech doesn't exist in every area of life.  A lot of obstacles as well as the lack of vision.

Ultimately, it boils down to what we have available but when things go "wrong", I can't help but say how come with great detail, as far as I know or just not care and figure out how to make myself satisfied for the moment.  We are all in some sort of proper timing with what the creators desire things to be whether people like it or not.  If it's going to work it will work, if not, it won't go anywhere.  With the power of tech, a lot of that stuff can be bridged and not overlooked, but then pretty much we are in proper timing when that happens.

Researching and developing is cool and all but if the results aren't making a difference, we either need to find a new method, do something else, or keep doing it as it can be the same as watching sports on TV w/o participating at all, like watching the news just to know more w/o it making much of a difference like what is going on w/ other people's lives that we cannot effect and it not really effect us more than the moment.
1-30 04:11
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Cetacean
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AntDX316 Posted at 1-30 04:11
Yeah, I've noticed how there are a million things that I wonder don't exist for some reason.  If I have a problem, I can develop solutions that people haven't made.  I'm not really a full-class engineer but some of the engineering people have made that has advanced so much to where we are today, a lot in life has been Heavily overlooked.  For me, I think having tech is the best vulnerability patcher we humans have available.  To not have it in at least every area of life is crazy.  Tech has also advanced where it can make decisions on its own.  Better than any human can so what has already existed, AI control can make it better.

It's understandable why tech doesn't exist in every area of life.  A lot of obstacles as well as the lack of vision.

Aloha Ant,

     Maybe the secret is to read voraciously and observe real and recorded information and events.  Then do what you can with what you have to make things better.  Everything is fluid out there.  And I live in the middle of the ocean!

Aloha and Drone On!
1-30 12:58
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AntDX316
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Cetacean Posted at 1-30 12:58
Aloha Ant,

     Maybe the secret is to read voraciously and observe real and recorded information and events.  Then do what you can with what you have to make things better.  Everything is fluid out there.  And I live in the middle of the ocean!

Drone some pictures of what it looks like!
1-30 19:19
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Cetacean
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AntDX316 Posted at 1-30 19:19
Drone some pictures of what it looks like!

Aloha Ant,

     Here is the link to my YouTube page.  Lots of videos.

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCIw23_mdDlaPwpCr2eMFlnw

Aloha and Drone On!
1-31 01:09
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AntDX316
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Cetacean Posted at 1-31 01:09
Aloha Ant,

     Here is the link to my YouTube page.  Lots of videos.

oh, I thought you live on a boat or man-made base in the middle of the ocean
1-31 01:49
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Cetacean
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AntDX316 Posted at 1-31 01:49
oh, I thought you live on a boat or man-made base in the middle of the ocean

Aloha Ant,

     Not me, that base is 800 miles north of Maui.  I am on Oahu.

Aloha and Drone On!
1-31 13:26
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Mark The Droner
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Cetacean Posted at 1-30 02:59
I had an experience way back in the day of research libraries (80s) when I was trying to develop a frictionless hydraulic motor for a waterbike that you could power with your arms and legs.

http://www.trbimg.com/img-52ebc8 ... ents-2014-01-31/600

:-)  
1-31 16:46
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AntDX316
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Mark The Droner Posted at 1-31 16:46
http://www.trbimg.com/img-52ebc8 ... ents-2014-01-31/600

:-)

Earthquakes and volcanic activity happen around the world.  Do you feel any?
1-31 20:05
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Mark The Droner
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AntDX316 Posted at 1-31 20:05
Earthquakes and volcanic activity happen around the world.  Do you feel any?


At this moment?  No.  I've felt several during my lifetime - in several locations around the globe.  Thanks for asking.  
2-1 03:46
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Cetacean Posted at 1-30 02:59
Aloha Ant,

     To answer your question simply, look at it as if there are two approaches.  One is if you are furthering an existing line of research.  Technology development often works this way as I am sure you have noticed.  By being familiar with what has been written about and designed already, you will know, at or near the expert level, about the subject matter you are thinking of writing about for development.  Then you think about your idea more and try to figure out if it is really new.

I think your statement is comical," I found a book on compressors that looked like just what I needed and then I realized the book was in French!  Oh wow, bummer!"

Your ancestry looks to be French. LOL   Mine is mixed and with a Croatian surname. Yes, I read Croatian.
Nice videos though.
2-1 18:47
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Goldenseal Posted at 2-1 18:47
I think your statement is comical," I found a book on compressors that looked like just what I needed and then I realized the book was in French!  Oh wow, bummer!"

Your ancestry looks to be French. LOL   Mine is mixed and with a Croatian surname. Yes, I read Croatian.

Aloha seal,

     It is nice that you appreciate my humor, not everyone does.  I did have four years of French, but I swear it went in one ear and out the other.  Only non-l'abrasion seems to have stuck!  I never really had a chance to converse in French.  But with a French last name, as you note, studying the language was a family requirement.  Sounds like you can understand how I was able to catch that compressor design.  Reading and hearing is way easier than speaking!

     Mahalo for the videos comment!

Aloha and Drone On!
2-2 01:14
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Mark The Droner Posted at 1-31 16:46
http://www.trbimg.com/img-52ebc8 ... ents-2014-01-31/600

:-)

Aloha Mark,

     Nice how we communicate in code!

Aloha and Drone On!
2-2 01:15
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